Dr Lea-Anne Henry

Research interests

My work seeks to understand macroecological patterns and drivers of biodiversity and biogeography in the ocean over ecological timescales, integrating ecosystem variability over geological (glacial-interglacial) timescales to improve this understanding. For more than 20 years now, the systems I study the most are coral reefs, the deep sea, seamounts, elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) and demersal and benthic communities more generally including those on man-made structures. Collaborations with offshore industries such as the oil and gas, fisheries, marine tourism and renewables sectors have been instrumental in helping to quantify human impacts alongside how climate change modifies these patterns too. For that reason, much of my research intersects closely with marine policies and also seeks to improve ocean governance around key issues such as biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction, marine protected areas (MPAs), marine spatial planning, maritime security, “rigs-to-reefs” and related topics, and Ecologically or Biologically Significant marine Areas (EBSAs).



Co-PI, “iAtlantic” – Integrated Assessment of Atlantic Marine Ecosystems in Space and Time (2019-2023, €10.2M): iAtlantic assesses health of deep and open-ocean Atlantic ecosystems. It scales and standardises measurements from different disciplines so ecosystem status can be assessed against multiple stressors and global change. It will predict where and when synergistic effects of global change and multiple stressors occur, and what implications these will have for society, economy and ocean health. iAtlantic focuses on 12 key areas of the ocean, using innovative approaches to upscale observations to address basin scale issues. Over 30 expeditions will study ecosystems most at risk of change. iAtlantic also builds human and technical capacities by creating iAtlantic Fellows through a capacity building programme including hands-on work at sea, technology transfer, analytical techniques and data interpretation training and a mentoring programme.

Co-PI, “ATLAS” – A Trans-AtLantic Assessment and deep-water ecosystem-based Spatial management plan for Europe (2016-2020, €9.3M): ATLAS is a new multinational partnership with industries, SMEs, governments and academia to assess the Atlantic’s deep-sea ecosystems and Marine Genetic Resources to create the integrated and adaptive planning products needed for sustainable Blue Growth. ATLAS will gather diverse new information on sensitive Atlantic ecosystems including vulnerable marine ecosystems to produce a step-change in the understanding of their connectivity, functioning and responses to future changes in human use and ocean climate.

PI, “SIORC” – Sharks, skates and rays in the Offshore and Coastal Regions of Scotland (2014 – ongoing, £11.7k): a MASTS-funded community project with MASTS academics, the Scottish Sea Angling Conservation Network, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish government to provide a comprehensive overview of our understanding of elasmobranchs in Scottish waters to prioritise a conservation research agenda, and complemented with strategic field studies.


PI, “ANChor” – Appraisal of Network Connectivity between North Sea subsea oil and gas platforms (2016-2018, £216k): an INSITE/industry-funded project with the National Oceanography Centre, and BMT Cordah that applies graph theory and network analyses to NERC’s ocean forecasting capacity and marine growth survey data from North Sea oil and gas platforms to understand how subsea infrastructure could potentially form a larger connected ecosystem.

PI, Working towards assessing shark and ray sustainable fisheries in northern Peru (2015-2016, £30k): A British-Council-funded project that establishes an initial institutional collaboration between the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Peru and the UK. Fieldwork in Peru with artisanal shark fishermen will provide new draft recommendations to define size limits and potential closed seasons for sharks and rays, and work towards more sustainable fisheries management and livelihoods of low-income local fishing communities.

Co-I, Advanced environmental monitoring solutions for the oil and gas industry in the Atlantic Margin (2015-2016, £82k): a NERC-funded interactive GIS tool displaying biological, geological and oceanographic data in collaboration with the British Geological Survey, National Oceanography Centre, and the SERPENT project to aid strategic planning in offshore licensed blocks.


I am the Degree Programme Director for the MSc Marine Systems and Policies programme.

Postgraduate and undergraduate university teaching includes:

Corals in a Changing Ocean (Course Organiser and Lecturer)

Sustainable Marine Development (Course Organiser and Lecturer)

Research Project in Marine Systems and Policies (Course Organiser and Lecturer)

Passive Earth Observation (Lecturer)

Principles of Ecology (Lecturer)


Current external international and national responsibilities include:

DOSI-INDEEP Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction Working Group
DOSI-INDEEP Deepwater Oil and Gas Working Group
MASTS Oil and Gas Forum
ICES Deep-Water Ecology Working Group


Mayorga Adame CG, Polton JA, Fox AD, Henry L-A (2022) Spatiotemporal scales of larval dispersal and connectivity among oil and gas structures in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 685: 49-67

McLean DL, Ferreira LC, Benthuysen JA, Miller KJ, Schläppy M-L, Ajemian MJ, Berry O, Birchenough SNR, Bond T, Boschetti F, Bull AS, Claisse JT, Condie SA, Consoli P, Coolen JWP, Elliott M, Fortune IS, Fowler AM, Gillanders BM, Harrison HB, Hart KML, Henry L-A, Hewitt CL, Hicks N, Hock K, Hyder K, Love M, Macreadie PI, Miller RJ, Montevecchi WA, Nishimoto MM, Page HM, Paterson D, Pattiaratchi CB, Pecl GT, Porter JS, David B. Reeves DB, Riginos C, Rouse S, Russell DJF, Sherman CDH, Teilmann J, Todd VLG, Treml EA, Williamson DH, Thums M (2022) Influence of offshore oil and gas structures on seascape ecological connectivity. Global Change Biology 2022: 1-22

Kazanidis G, Henry L-A, Roberts, JM (2021) Hidden structural complexity enhances marine hotspots’ biodiversity. Coral Reefs 40: 1615-1630

Kazanidis G, Henry L-A, Vad J, Johnson C, De Clippele JH, Roberts JM (2021) High sensitivity of a marine biodiversity hotspot to basin-scale oceanographic shifts. Diversity and Distributions 27: 1719-1731 

Montseny M, Linares C, Carreiro-Silva M, Henry L-A, Billett D, Cordes EE, Smith CJ, Papadopoulou N, Bilan M, Girard F, Burdett HL, Larsson AI, Strömberg SM, Viladrich N, Barry JP, Baena P, Godinho A, Grinyó J, Santín A, Morato T, Sweetman AK, Gili J-M, Gori (2021) Restoration of cold-water corals: techniques, challenges, costs and future directions. Frontiers in Marine Science 8: 621151 

Gebruk A, Zalota A, Dgebuadze P, Ermilova Y, Spiridonov V, Shabalin N, Henry L-A, Henley SF, Mokievsky V (2021) Trophic niches of benthic crustaceans in the Pechora Sea suggest that the invasive snow crab Chionoecetes opilio could be a new competitor. Polar Biology 44: 57–71

Morato T, Pham CK, Fauconnet L, Taranto G, Chimienti G, Codes E, Dominguez-Carrió C, Durán Muñoz P, Egilsdottir, González-Irusta JM, Grehan A, Hebbeln D, Henry L-A, Kenchington E, Menot L, Molodtsova T, Orejas C, Ramiro Sánchez B, Ramos M, Roberts JM, Rodrigues L, Ross SW, Rueda JL, Del Mar Sacau Cuadrado M, Stirling D, Carreiro-Silva M (2021) North Atlantic basin-scale multi-criteria assessment database to inform effective management and protection of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science 8: 637078

Urra J, Palomino D, Lozano P, González-García E, Farias C, Mateo-Ramírez Á, Fernández-Salas LM, López-Gonzáleza N, Vila Y, Orejas C, Puerta P, Rivera J, Henry L-A, Rueda JL (2021) Deep-sea habitat characterization using acoustic data and underwater imagery in Gazul mud volcano (Gulf of Cádiz, NE Atlantic). Deep-Sea Research Part I

Gebruk A, Shabalin N, Mardashova M, Mikhailukova P, Simakova U, Henry L-A, Narayanaswamy B, Mokievskiy V (2020) Integrated study of benthic foraging resources for Atlantic walrus (Odobensus rosmarus rosmarus) from feeding grounds in the Pechora Sea, SE Barents Sea. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 2020: 1-14

Kazanidis G, Orejas C., Borja A, Kenchington E, Henry L-A, Callery O, Carreiro-Silva M, Egilsdottir H, Giacomello E, Grehan A, Menot L, Morato T, Ragnarsson SA, Rueda JL, Stirling D, Stratmann T, van Oevelen D, Palialexis A, Johnson D, Roberts JM (2020). Assessing the environmental status of selected North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems. Ecological Indicators 119: 106624.

Morato T et al. (2020) Climate-induced changes in the suitable habitat of cold-water corals and commercially important deep-sea fishes in the North Atlantic. Global Change Biology 26: 2181-2202

Puerta P, Johnson C, Carreiro-Silva M, Henry L-A, Kenchington E, Morato T, Kazanidis G, Rueda JL, Urra J, Ross S, González-Irusta J-M, Arnaud-Haond S, Orejas C (2020) Influence of water masses on the biodiversity and biogeography of deep-sea benthic ecosystems in the North Atlantic. Frontiers in Marine Science 7: 239

Ramiro-Sánchez B, Henry L-A, Morato T, Taranto G, Cleland J, Carreiro-Silva M, Sampaio Í, Domínguez-Carrió C, Messing CG, Kenchington EL, Murton B, Roberts JM (2020): Compilation of records of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicator taxa in the North Atlantic. PANGAEA: doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.920658

Vad J, Kazanidis G, Henry L-A, Jones DOB, Gates AR, Roberts JM (2020) Environmental controls and anthropogenic impacts on deep-sea sponge grounds in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, NE Atlantic: the importance of considering spatial scale to distinguish drivers of change. ICES Journal of Marine Science 77: 451-461

Armstrong CW, Foley N, Henry L-A, Needham K, Ressurreição A, Vondolia GK (2019) Expert assessment of risks posed by climate change and anthropogenic activities to ecosystem services in the deep North Atlantic. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 158

Canonico G, Buttigieg PL, Montes E, Stepien CA, Wright D, Benson A, Helmuth B, Costello MJ, Muller-Karger FE, Pinto IS, Saeedi H, Newton JA, Appeltans W, Bednaršek N, Bodrossy L, Best BD, Brandt A, Goodwin K, Iken K, Marques A, Miloslavich P, Ostrowski M, Turner W, Achterberg E, Barry T, Defeo O, Bigatti G, Henry L-A, Ramiro Sánchez B, Durán Muñoz P, Cuadrado MMS, Morato T, Roberts JM, Garcia-Alegre AG, Murton BJ (2019) Global observational needs and resources for marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 367

Fox AD, Corne DW, Mayorga Adame CG, Polton JA, Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2019) An efficient multi-objective optimisation method for use in the design of marine protected area networks. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 17

Kazanidis G, Vad J, Henry L-A, Neat F, Berx B, Georgoulas K, Roberts, JM (2019) Distribution of deep-sea sponge aggregations in an area of multisectoral activities and changing oceanic conditions. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 163

La Beur L, Henry L-A, Kazanidis, G, Hennige S, Mcdonald A, Shaver M, Roberts JM (2019) Baseline assessment of marine litter and microplastic ingestion by cold-water coral reef benthos at the East Mingulay Marine Protected Area (Sea of the Hebrides, western Scotland). Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 80

Ramiro-Sánchez B, González-Irusta JM, Henry L-A, Cleland J, Yeo I, Xavier JR, Carreiro-Silva M, Sampaio Í, Spearman J, Victorero L, Messing CG, Kazanidis G, Roberts JM, Murton B (2019) Characterization and mapping of a deep-sea sponge ground on the Tropic Seamount (Northeast tropical Atlantic): implications for spatial management in the High Seas. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 278

Thorburn J, Neat F., Burrett I, Henry L-A, Bailey D, Noble L, Jones C (2019) Ontogenetic and seasonal variation in movements and depth use, and evidence of partial migration in a benthopelagic elasmobranch. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7:353

Henry L-A, Mayorga-Adame CG, Fox AD, Polton JA, Ferris JS, McLellan F, McCabe C, Kutti T, Roberts JM (2018) Ocean sprawl facilitates dispersal and connectivity of protected species. Nature Scientific Reports 8:11346

MCCIP (2018). Climate change and marine conservation: Coral Gardens. Eds. Rush S, Carr H, Henry L-A, Neat F, Hall-Spencer J, Jesus A and Pettit L. MCCIP, Lowestoft, 8pp.

Murray F, Needham K, Gormley K, Rouse S, Coolen JWP, Billet D, Dannheim J, Birchenough SNR, Hyder K, Heard R, Ferris JS, Holstein JM, Henry L-A, McMeel O, Calewaert J-B, Roberts JM (2018) Data challenges and opportunities for environmental management of North Sea oil and gas decommissioning in an era of blue growth. Marine Policy 97: 130-138

Vad, J, Kazanidis, G., Henry, L-A, Jones, D, Tendall, O, Christiansen, S, Henry, T, Roberts, JM (2018) Potential impacts of oil and gas activities on deep-sea sponges and the habitats they form. Advances in Marine Biology 79, 33-60

Henry, L-A, Harries D, Kingston P, Roberts JM (2017) Historic scale and persistence of drill cuttings impacts on North Sea benthos. Marine Environmental Research 129:219-228

Sweetman, AK, Thurber AR, Smith CR, Levin LA, Mora C, Wei C-L, Gooday AJ, Jones DOB, Rex M, Yasuhara M, Ingels J, Ruhl HA, Frieder CA, Danovaro R, Würzberg L, Baco A, Grupe BM, Pasulka A, Meyer KS, Dunlop KM, Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2017) Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 5: 4

Cordes EE, Jones DO, Schlacher TA, Amon DJ, Bernadino AF, Brooke S, Carney R, DeLeo DM, Dunlop KM, Escobar-Briones EG, Gates AR, Génio L, Gobin J, Henry L-A, Herrera S, Hoyt S, Joye S, Kark S, Mestre NC, Metaxas A, Pfeifer S, Sink K, Sweetman AK, Witte UF (2016) Environmental impacts of the deep-water oil and gas industry: a review to guide management strategies. Frontiers in Environmental Science 4: 58

Douarin M, Elliot M, Noble SR, Moreton SG, Long D, Sinclair D, Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2016) North Atlantic ecosystem sensitivity to abrupt shifts in meridional overturning circulation regime in the Holocene. Geophysical Research Letters 43: 291-298

Fox A, Henry L-A, Corne DW, Roberts JM (2016) Sensitivity of marine protected area network connectivity to atmospheric variability. Royal Society Open Science 3: 160494

Henry L-A, Orejas C, Kazanidis G, Durán Suja L, Witte U, Roberts JM (2016) Coral cities of the deep – species-habitat associations on the Mingulay Reef Complex. Ocean Challenge 21(2): 17-19

Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2016) Global biodiversity in cold-water coral reefs. In, “Marine Animal Forests”. Rossi S, Bramanti L, Gori A, Orejas C (eds). Meteor Springer doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-17001-5_6-1

Henry L-A, Stehmann M, De Clippele L, Golding N, Roberts JM (2016) Seamount egg-laying grounds of the deepwater skate Bathyraja richardsoni (Garrick 1961). Journal of Fish Biology 89: 1473-1481

Kazanidis G, Henry L-A, Roberts JM, Witte U (2016) Biological structures in the deep sea: biodiversity of Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) microhabitats at two contrasting cold-water coral reef settings. Coral Reefs 35: 193-208

Roberts JM, Murray F, Anagnostou E, Hennige S, Gori A, Henry L-A, Fox A, Kamenos N, Foster GL (2016) Cold‐water corals in an era of rapid global change: are these the deep ocean’s most vulnerable ecosystems? In, “The Cnidaria, past, present and future”. Editors: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds.) Springer. 593-606

Barbier EB, Moreno-Mateos D, Rogers AD, Aronson J, Pendleton L, Danovaro R, Henry L-A , Morato T, Ardron J, Van Dover CL (2014) Protect the deep sea. Nature 505: 475-477

Douarin M, Sinclair D, Elliot M, Henry L-A, Long D, Roberts JM (2014) Changes in fossil assemblage in sediment cores from Mingulay Reef Complex (NE Atlantic): implications for coral reef build-up. Deep Sea Research II 99: 286-296

Henry L-A, Frank N, Hebbeln D, Wienberg C, Robinson L, van de Flierdt T, Dahl M, Douarin M, Morrison CL, López Correa M, Rogers AD, Ruckelshausen M, Roberts JM (2014) Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea. Deep Sea Research I 88: 8-16

Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2014a) Applying the OSPAR habitat definitions of deep-sea sponge aggregations to verify suspected records of the habitat in UK waters. JNCC Report No. 508

Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2014b) Developing an interim technical definition for Coral Gardens specific for UK waters and its subsequent application to verify suspected records. JNCC Report No. 507

Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2014c) Recommendations for best practice in deep-sea habitat classification – Bullimore et al. as a case study. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 895-898

Henry L-A, Vad J, Findlay HS, Murillo J, Milligan R, Roberts JM (2014) Environmental variability and biodiversity of megabenthos on the Hebrides Terrace Seamount (Northeast Atlantic) Nature Scientific Reports 4: 5589

Moreno Navas J, Miller P, Henry L-A, Hennige S, Roberts JM (2014) Ecohydrodynamics of cold-water coral reefs: a case study of the Mingulay Reef complex (western Scotland). PLoS One 9: e106298

Douarin M, Elliot M, Noble SR, Sinclair D, Henry L-A, Long D, Moreton SG, Roberts JM (2013) Growth of north-east Atlantic cold-water coral structures during the Holocene: a high resolution U-series and 14C chronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 375: 176-187

Henry L-A, Moreno-Navas J, Hennige SJ, Wicks LC, Vad J, Roberts JM (2013) Cold-water coral reef habitats benefit recreationally valuable sharks. Biological Conservation 161: 67–70

Henry L-A, Moreno Navas J, Roberts JM (2013) Multi-scale interactions between local hydrography, seabed topography, and community assembly on cold-water coral reefs. Biogeosciences 10: 2737–2746

Henry L-A (2011) A deep-sea coral “gateway” in the northwestern Caribbean. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19 (6): 120–124

Henry L-A (2011) Biodiversity, ecology and biogeography of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Belize. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19 (6): 66–77

Vervoort W, Henry L-A, Nizinski MA (2011) Redescription of the leptothecate hydroid Halecium macrocephalum Allman, 1877 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Journal of Natural History 45: 2095–2104

Wheeler AJ, Kozachenko M, Henry L-A, de Haas H, Huvenne VAI, Masson DG, Olu-Le Roy K (2011) The Moira Mounds, small cold-water coral banks in the Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic: an early stage growth phase for future coral carbonate mounds? Marine Geology 282: 53–64

Henry L-A, Davies AJ, Roberts JM (2010) Beta diversity of cold-water coral reef communities off western Scotland. Coral Reefs 29: 427–436

Roberts JM, Davies AJ, Henry L-A, Dodds LA, Duineveld GCA, Lavaleye MSS, Maier C, van Soest RWM, Bergman MIN, Hühnerbach V, Huvenne VAI, Sinclair DJ, Watmough T, Long D, Green SL, van Haren H (2009) The Mingulay reef complex, northeast Atlantic: an interdisciplinary study of cold-water coral habitat, hydrography and biodiversity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397: 139–151

Gordon Jr DC, Kenchington ELR, Gilkinson KD, Fader GBJ, Bourbonnais-Boyce C, MacIsaac KG, McKeown DL, Henry L-A, Vass WP (2008) Summary of the Western Bank otter trawling experiment (1997-1999): effects on benthic habitat and communities. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2822: vii + 70p

Henry L-A, Nizinski, M, Ross, SW (2008) Occurrence and biogeography of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern United States. Deep-Sea Research Part I 55: 788–800

Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2008) First record of Bedotella armata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Porcupine Seabight: do north-east Atlantic coral carbonate mound fauna have Mediterranean ancestors? Marine Biodiversity Records 1: e24

Roberts JM, Henry L-A, Long D, Hartley JP (2008) Cold-water coral reef frameworks, megafaunal communities and evidence for coral carbonate mounds on the Hatton Bank, north east Atlantic. Facies 54: 297–316

Henry L-A (2007) Hydroids. In, “Encyclopedia of Tidepools”. Gaines SD, Denny M (eds). University of California Press. pp. 284–285

Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2007) Biodiversity and ecological composition of macrobenthos on cold-water coral mounds and adjacent off-mound habitat in the bathyal Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part I 54: 654–672

Kenchington EL, Kenchington TJ, Henry L-A, Fuller SD, Gonzalez P (2007) Multi-decadal changes in the megabenthos of the Bay of Fundy: the effects of fishing. Journal of Sea Research 58: 220–240

Henry L-A, Kenchington ELR, Kenchington TJ, MacIsaac KG, Bourbonnais-Boyce C, Gordon Jr, DC. (2006) Impacts of otter-trawling on colonial epifaunal assemblages on a cobble bottom ecosystem on Western Bank (northwest Atlantic). Marine Ecology Progress Series 306: 63–78

Henry L-A, Hart, MW (2005) Regeneration from injury and resource allocation in sponges and corals – a review. International Review of Hydrobiology 90: 125–158

Henry L-A, Kenchington ELR (2004) Differences between epilithic and epizoic hydroid assemblages on commercial scallop grounds in the Bay of Fundy, northwest Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 266: 123–134

Henry L-A, Kenchington, ELR (2004) Ecological and genetic evidence for impaired sexual reproduction and induced clonality in the hydroid Sertularia cupressina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) on commercial scallop grounds in Atlantic Canada. Marine Biology 145: 1107–1118

Henry L-A, Roberts JM (2004) The biodiversity, characteristics and distinguishing features of deep-water epifaunal communities from the Wyville-Thomson Ridge, Darwin Mounds and Faeroes Plateau. Report to the Atlantic Frontier Environment Network, 44p

Roberts JM, Coates A, Duncan J, Henry L-A, Hughes DJ, Lamont P (2004) MINCH grab sample report. Mapping Inshore Coral Habitats. Report to the Scottish Executive and Scottish Natural Heritage, 27p

Henry L-A, Kenchington ELR, Lamanna A (2003) Taxonomic status of colour morphs and pan-American specimens of Paragorgia arborea (Linnaeus, 1758). Erlanger Geologische Abhandlungen 4: 45–46

Henry L-A, Kenchington ELR, Silvaggio A (2003) Effects of mechanical experimental disturbance on aspects of colony responses, reproduction and regeneration in the cold water octocoral Gersemia rubiformis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1691–1701

Henry L-A (2002) Intertidal zonation and seasonality of the marine hydroid Dynamena pumila (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 1526–1536

Henry L, Kenchington E, Gordon DC Jr, MacIsaac K, Bourbonnais C (2002) Indicators of benthic biodiversity for the eastern Scotian Shelf. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2433: ix + 61p

Henry L-A (2001) Hydroids associated with deep-sea corals in the boreal north-west Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 163–164


BSc Biology, University of Ottawa, Canada (1994-1998)

MSc Zoology, University of Toronto, Canada (1998-2000)

PhD Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada (2000-2003)